Wave springs operate as load bearing devices. They occupy the gap and compensate for dimensional changes in the device. Where the load accumulates gradually or suddenly, it is possible to generate an almost infinite range of forces to reach a predetermined working height. This establishes an exact elastic ratio where the load is proportional to the amount of deformation.
Functional requirements are required for both dynamic and static spring applications. Special performance characteristics are built into each spring individually to meet a variety of precise operating conditions. Typically, a wave spring will occupy a very small workload area. The demand for this product is not limited to the use of tight axial and radial spaces.
Types and working principles of wave springs
What is the function and function of the wave spring? What should I pay attention to when purchasing a wave spring?
The wave spring can save space, and the wave spring is an elastic element with several peaks and valleys on a thin metal ring.
The function of the wave spring:
- Control the movement of machinery, such as valve springs in internal combustion engines and clutch control springs.
- Absorb vibration and impact energy, such as buffer springs under automobiles and train carriages, vibration-absorbing springs in couplings, etc.
- Energy storage and output as power, such as clock springs, etc.
used as a force measuring element, such as a force measuring device, a spring in a spring balance, etc. The ratio of the load to the deformation of the spring is called the spring stiffness, and the higher the stiffness, the stiffer the spring.
A wave spring is a thin annular elastic metal element composed of a plurality of wave crests and troughs, which is referred to as a wave spring for short. A single-layer wave spring is an elastic element with several wave peaks and troughs on a metal ring, while a multi-layer wave spring looks similar to a cylindrical coil spring composed of many single-layer wave springs.
Wave springs are widely used in motors, textile machinery, machinery manufacturing, petrochemicals, hydraulic equipment, automobiles and other industries. They are installed in bearing chambers or holes suitable for the specifications (nominal size), and the installation space is small. The vibration function is suitable for occasions with large strokes and small loads.
Compared with ordinary helical compression springs, it can save at least about half of the space under similar loads; it can reduce the overall volume of the equipment and save costs; it is very suitable for places with limited axial space; it can be changed by changing the thickness, width or manufacturing of the material. Two or three layers of overlapping wave springs are used to meet the requirements of different loads.
With the deepening of the industrialization process, China’s industrial upgrading wave springs are widely used in various fields, providing a large number of compact and lightweight solutions in the product design of aerospace, automotive, medical, petroleum and other industries. Below we introduce the reasons why wave springs enter the engineer’s design database.
- Saving axial space
Since each layer of the wave spring is composed of sections of sine waves, although they are both helical structures, the output spring stiffness is greater under the same conditions, so the load demand can be provided within a smaller stroke range, thereby reducing the overall component. The size provides design possibilities for lightweight and compact products.
- It provides precise and controllable force requirements.
Thanks to the linear spring rate of the sine wave output of the wave spring, the load of the wave spring at the specified working height can be accurately predicted. For products with high requirements for high work load and high accuracy, this characteristic of the wave spring can well meet the requirements of precision machinery for product consistency and reliability.
- Design flexibility
Since the wave spring adopts the edge winding process, it can quickly and economically provide samples for the early design of the product. The company has matched a large number of tooling dies and a wide range of material inventories for the non-standard design and production of wave springs.
Materials used in the manufacture of wave springs and their uses
- When manufacturing springs, metal elements such as silicon, manganese, chromium, vanadium, and molybdenum are often added to the steel to increase the elasticity and fatigue limit of the spring and to make it resistant to impact.
- Large-scale wave springs are mostly processed by hot work; that is, the spring material is rolled into a bar at a high temperature, and then processed and formed at a high temperature, quenched in oil or water at about 780 degrees to 850 degrees, and then tempered at a temperature of 400 to 500 degrees.
- Small springs are first annealed, then cold-worked, rolled, and then hardened and tempered, such as steel wire, piano wire, or steel strip.
- The piano wire is made of high carbon steel (0.65-0.95%) with few impurities. When the diameter is usually less than 1/4, it is drawn into wire at room temperature after briquette treatment. It has good mechanical properties, high tensile strength, and sturdiness, and is an excellent coil spring material.
- Stainless steel wire is used in places susceptible to corrosion, and high-speed steel and stainless steel can be used to withstand high temperatures.
- The carbon content of the oil tempering wire should be 0.6-0.7% manganese, and 0.6-1.0% is often used for coil springs.
- Common steels of 0.9-1.0% are commonly used for leaf springs, and chrome-vanadium steel and silicon-manganese steel are used for higher grades.
Zhejiang Lisheng Spring has been engaged in the production of wave springs for more than 20 years. As a professional wave spring washer manufacturer, we have rich production experience and are one of the experts in this industry. At present, the company has thousands of wave springs in regular sizes, whether it is carbon steel, stainless steel, inconel superalloy, copper alloy or titanium alloy products, we can provide them. If you are interested in our products, please contact us as soon as possible, we look forward to cooperating with you.